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Stroke

Long-term prognosis of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with no significant coronary artery disease (from the HORIZONS-AMI trial).

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Long-term prognosis of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with no significant coronary artery disease (from the HORIZONS-AMI trial).

Am J Cardiol. 2013 Mar 1;111(5):643-8

Authors: Larsen AI, Nilsen DW, Yu J, Mehran R, Nikolsky E, Lansky AJ, Caixeta A, Parise H, Fahy M, Cristea E, Witzenbichler B, Guagliumi G, Peruga JZ, Brodie BR, Dudek D, Stone GW

Abstract
The clinical features and prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and no significant coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been well studied. We examined the outcomes of patients with STEMI in the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) trial according to the presence or absence of significant CAD. "No-CAD" was defined by the absence of any lesion with a diameter stenosis of ?30% on quantitative coronary angiography of the baseline coronary angiogram. Of 3,602 patients, 127 (3.5%) had no-CAD. Of these, 86 (67.7%) had angiographically normal coronary arteries, and 41 (32.3%) had mild disease (diameter stenosis <30%). Eight patients had previously been treated with coronary artery bypass grafting. Compared to patients with CAD, patients with no-CAD were younger, had a lower body mass index, were more frequently black, had a lower prevalence of smoking and previous angina, and had a greater left ventricular ejection fraction. Cardiac enzymes were elevated in fewer patients with no-CAD than in those with CAD (63.2% vs 98.7%, p <0.001). At 3 years of follow-up, the patients with no-CAD versus CAD had lower rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (7.7% vs 22.2%, p = 0.002), net adverse clinical events (major adverse cardiovascular events or major bleeding not related to coronary artery bypass grafting, 12.5% vs 26.9%, p = 0.005), and postprocedure coronary revascularization (0% vs 19.5%, p <0.001). The differences in the rates of death or reinfarction, stroke, and major bleeding were not statistically significant. In conclusion, 3.5% of patients with STEMI had no significant CAD. The 3-year prognosis for these patients was favorable compared to that of patients with STEMI and with obstructive CAD.

PMID: 23261001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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Representativeness of the dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban clinical trial populations to real-world atrial fibrillation patients in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional analysis using the General Practice Research Database.

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Representativeness of the dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban clinical trial populations to real-world atrial fibrillation patients in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional analysis using the General Practice Research Database.

BMJ Open. 2012;2(6)

Authors: Lee S, Monz BU, Clemens A, Brueckmann M, Lip GY

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Three oral anticoagulants have reported study results for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban and apixaban); all demonstrated superiority or non-inferiority compared with warfarin (RE-LY, ARISTOTLE and ROCKET-AF). This study aimed to assess the representativeness for the real-world AF population, particularly the population eligible for anticoagulants.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional database analysis.
SETTING: Dataset derived from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURE: The proportion of real-world patients with AF who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for RE-LY, ARISTOTLE and ROCKET-AF were compared. The results were then stratified by risk of stroke using CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc.
RESULTS: 83 898 patients with AF were identified in the GPRD. For the population at intermediate or high risk of stroke and eligible for anticoagulant treatment (CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc ?1; n=78 783 (94%)), the proportion eligible for inclusion into RE-LY (dabigatran etexilate) was 68% (95% CI 67.7% to 68.3%; n=53 640), compared with 65% (95% CI 64.7% to 65.3%; n=51 163) eligible for ARISTOTLE (apixaban) and 51% (95% CI 50.7% to 51.4%; n=39 892) eligible for ROCKET-AF (rivaroxaban). Using the CHADS(2) method of risk stratification, for the population at intermediate or high risk of stroke and eligible for anticoagulation treatment (CHADS(2) ?1; n=71 493 (85%)), the proportion eligible for inclusion into RE-LY was 74% (95% CI 73.7% to 74.3%; n=52 783), compared with 72% (95% CI 71.7% to 72.3%; n=51 415) for ARISTOTLE and 56% (95% CI 55.6% to 56.4%; n=39 892) for ROCKET-AF.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients enrolled within RE-LY and ARISTOTLE were more reflective of the 'real-world' AF population in the UK, in contrast with patients enrolled within ROCKET-AF who were a more narrowly defined group of patients at higher risk of stroke. Differences between trials should be taken into account when considering the applicability of findings from randomised clinical trials. However, assessing representativeness is not a substitute for assessing generalisibility, that is, how well clinical trial results would translate into effectiveness and safety in everyday routine care.

PMID: 23242482 [PubMed]


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Soluble glycoprotein 130 predicts fatal outcomes in chronic heart failure: analysis from the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA).

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Soluble glycoprotein 130 predicts fatal outcomes in chronic heart failure: analysis from the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA).

Circ Heart Fail. 2013 Jan;6(1):91-8

Authors: Askevold ET, Nymo S, Ueland T, Gravning J, Wergeland R, Kjekshus J, Yndestad A, Cleland JG, McMurray JJ, Aukrust P, Gullestad L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is the common signal-transducing receptor subunit of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, which may be involved in the progression of heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that soluble gp130 would provide prognostic information beyond that of IL-6 in a population with HF from the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA).
METHODS AND RESULTS: The associations of soluble gp130 and IL-6 with morbidity, mortality, and mode of death were assessed by immunoassays in a subset of 1452 patients enrolled in the CORONA trial, which included patients with HF, aged ?60 years, in New York Heart Association classes II to IV, who had ischemic heart disease and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. In multivariable analyses, including C-reactive protein, IL-6, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, elevated soluble gp130 (fifth quintile versus all lower quintiles) was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.47 [1.11-1.93]; P=0.006), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.38 [1.01-1.87]; P=0.042), and death from worsening HF (hazard ratio, 1.85 [1.09-3.14]; P=0.002), but not with the primary end point (composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke; hazard ratio, 1.12 [0.84-1.50]; P=0.44). Plasma IL-6 was not associated with outcomes in multivariable analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Marked elevations in soluble gp130 are associated with total and cardiovascular mortality, as well as deaths from worsening HF, in elderly patients with HF of ischemic cause
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00206310.

PMID: 23230311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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A Long-Term Follow-Up Programme for Maintenance of Motor Function after Stroke: Protocol of the life after Stroke-The LAST Study.

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A Long-Term Follow-Up Programme for Maintenance of Motor Function after Stroke: Protocol of the life after Stroke-The LAST Study.

Stroke Res Treat. 2012;2012:392101

Authors: Askim T, Langhammer B, Ihle-Hansen H, Magnussen J, Engstad T, Indredavik B

Abstract
Background. There are no evidence-based strategies that have been shown to be superior in maintaining motor function for months to years after the stroke. The LAST study therefore intends to assess the effect of a long-term follow-up program for stroke patients compared to standard care on function, disability and health. Design. This is a prospective, multi-site randomised controlled trial, with blinded assessment 18 months after inclusion. A total of 390 patients will be recruited and randomised to a control group, receiving usual care, or to an intervention group 10 to 16 weeks after onset of stroke. Patients will be stratified according to stroke severity, age above 80, and recruitment site. The intervention group will receive monthly coaching on physical activity by a physiotherapist for 18 consecutive months after inclusion. Outcomes. The primary outcome is motor function (Motor Assessment Scale) 18 months after inclusion. Secondary outcomes are: dependency, balance, endurance, health-related quality of life, fatigue, anxiety and depression, cognitive function, burden on caregivers, and health costs. Adverse events and compliance to the intervention will be registered consecutively during follow-up.

PMID: 23227428 [PubMed]


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Acute ischemic stroke--from symptom recognition to thrombolysis.

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Acute ischemic stroke--from symptom recognition to thrombolysis.

Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2013;(196):57-64

Authors: Kurz MW, Kurz KD, Farbu E

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The understanding of stroke has changed in the recent years from rehabilitation to an emergency approach. We review existing data from symptom recognition to thrombolysis and identify challenges in the different phases of patient treatment.
RESULTS: Implementation of treatment in dedicated stroke units with a multidisciplinary team exclusively treating stroke patients has led to significant reduction of stroke morbidity and mortality. Yet, first the introduction of treatment with intravenous rtPA (IVT) has led to the 'time is brain' concept where stroke is conceived as an emergency. As neuronal death in stroke is time dependent, all effort should be laid on immediate symptom recognition, rapid transport to the nearest hospital with a stroke treatment facility and diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible. The main cause of prehospital delay is that patients do not recognize that they suffered a stroke or out of other reasons do not call the Emergency Medical Services immediately. Educational stroke awareness campaigns may have an impact in increasing the number of patients eligible for rtPA treatment and can decrease the prehospital times if they are directed both to the public and to the medical divisions treating stroke. Stroke transport times can be shortened by the use of helicopter and a stroke mobile--an ambulance equipped with a CT scanner--may be helpful to decrease time from onset to treatment start in the future. Yet, IVT has several limitations such as a narrow time window and a weak effect in ischemic strokes caused by large vessel occlusions. In these cases, interventional procedures and the concept of bridging therapy, a combined approach of IVT and intraarterial thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy, might improve recanalization rates and patient outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: As neuronal death in stroke patients occurs in a time-dependent fashion, all effort should be made to decrease time from symptom onset to treatment start with rtPA: major challenges are stroke recognition in the public, transport times to hospital and an efficient stroke triage in the hospital.

PMID: 23190293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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