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DNA Repair

Single transmembrane peptide DinQ modulates membrane-dependent activities.

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Single transmembrane peptide DinQ modulates membrane-dependent activities.

PLoS Genet. 2013;9(2):e1003260

Authors: Weel-Sneve R, Kristiansen KI, Odsbu I, Dalhus B, Booth J, Rognes T, Skarstad K, Bjørås M

Abstract
The functions of several SOS regulated genes in Escherichia coli are still unknown, including dinQ. In this work we characterize dinQ and two small RNAs, agrA and agrB, with antisense complementarity to dinQ. Northern analysis revealed five dinQ transcripts, but only one transcript (+44) is actively translated. The +44 dinQ transcript translates into a toxic single transmembrane peptide localized in the inner membrane. AgrB regulates dinQ RNA by RNA interference to counteract DinQ toxicity. Thus the dinQ-agr locus shows the classical features of a type I TA system and has many similarities to the tisB-istR locus. DinQ overexpression depolarizes the cell membrane and decreases the intracellular ATP concentration, demonstrating that DinQ can modulate membrane-dependent processes. Augmented DinQ strongly inhibits marker transfer by Hfr conjugation, indicating a role in recombination. Furthermore, DinQ affects transformation of nucleoid morphology in response to UV damage. We hypothesize that DinQ is a transmembrane peptide that modulates membrane-dependent activities such as nucleoid compaction and recombination.

PMID: 23408903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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Discovery of 4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-(methylsulfonyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-indole (AZ20): a potent and selective inhibitor of ATR protein kinase with monotherapy in vivo antitumor activity.

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Discovery of 4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-(methylsulfonyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-indole (AZ20): a potent and selective inhibitor of ATR protein kinase with monotherapy in vivo antitumor activity.

J Med Chem. 2013 Mar 14;56(5):2125-38

Authors: Foote KM, Blades K, Cronin A, Fillery S, Guichard SS, Hassall L, Hickson I, Jacq X, Jewsbury PJ, McGuire TM, Nissink JW, Odedra R, Page K, Perkins P, Suleman A, Tam K, Thommes P, Broadhurst R, Wood C

Abstract
ATR is an attractive new anticancer drug target whose inhibitors have potential as chemo- or radiation sensitizers or as monotherapy in tumors addicted to particular DNA-repair pathways. We describe the discovery and synthesis of a series of sulfonylmorpholinopyrimidines that show potent and selective ATR inhibition. Optimization from a high quality screening hit within tight SAR space led to compound 6 (AZ20) which inhibits ATR immunoprecipitated from HeLa nuclear extracts with an IC50 of 5 nM and ATR mediated phosphorylation of Chk1 in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cells with an IC50 of 50 nM. Compound 6 potently inhibits the growth of LoVo colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cells in vitro and has high free exposure in mouse following moderate oral doses. At well tolerated doses 6 leads to significant growth inhibition of LoVo xenografts grown in nude mice. Compound 6 is a useful compound to explore ATR pharmacology in vivo.

PMID: 23394205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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Loss of Neil3, the major DNA glycosylase activity for removal of hydantoins in single stranded DNA, reduces cellular proliferation and sensitizes cells to genotoxic stress.

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Loss of Neil3, the major DNA glycosylase activity for removal of hydantoins in single stranded DNA, reduces cellular proliferation and sensitizes cells to genotoxic stress.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 May;1833(5):1157-64

Authors: Rolseth V, Krokeide SZ, Kunke D, Neurauter CG, Suganthan R, Sejersted Y, Hildrestrand GA, Bjørås M, Luna L

Abstract
7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most common oxidative base lesions in normal tissues induced by a variety of endogenous and exogenous agents. Hydantoins are products of 8-oxoG oxidation and as 8-oxoG, they have been shown to be mutagenic lesions. Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in the etiology of various age-associated pathologies, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, and several neurodegenerative diseases. The mammalian endonuclease VIII-like 3 (Neil3) is one of the four DNA glycosylases found to recognize and remove hydantoins in the first step of base excision repair (BER) pathway. We have generated mice lacking Neil3 and by using total cell extracts we demonstrate that Neil3 is the main DNA glycosylase that incises hydantoins in single stranded DNA in tissues. Using the neurosphere culture system as a model to study neural stem/progenitor (NSPC) cells we found that lack of Neil3 impaired self renewal but did not affect differentiation capacity. Proliferation was also reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Neil3(-/-) embryos and these cells were sensitive to both the oxidative toxicant paraquat and interstrand cross-link (ICL)-inducing agent cisplatin. Our data support the involvement of Neil3 in removal of replication blocks in proliferating cells.

PMID: 23305905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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The human base excision repair enzyme SMUG1 directly interacts with DKC1 and contributes to RNA quality control.

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The human base excision repair enzyme SMUG1 directly interacts with DKC1 and contributes to RNA quality control.

Mol Cell. 2013 Jan 24;49(2):339-45

Authors: Jobert L, Skjeldam HK, Dalhus B, Galashevskaya A, Vågbø CB, Bjørås M, Nilsen H

Abstract
Single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1) is a base excision repair enzyme that removes uracil and oxidised pyrimidines from DNA. We show that SMUG1 interacts with the pseudouridine synthase Dyskerin (DKC1) and colocalizes with DKC1 in nucleoli and Cajal bodies. As DKC1 functions in RNA processing, we tested whether SMUG1 excised modified bases in RNA and demonstrated that SMUG1 has activity on single-stranded RNA containing 5-hydroxymethyldeoxyuridine, but not pseudouridine, the nucleoside resulting from isomerization of uridine by DKC1. Moreover, SMUG1 associates with the 47S rRNA precursor processed by DKC1, and depletion of SMUG1 leads to a reduction in the levels of mature rRNA accompanied by an increase in polyadenylated rRNA. Depletion of SMUG1, and, in particular, the combined loss of SMUG1 and DKC1, leads to accumulation of 5-hydroxymethyluridine in rRNA. In conclusion, SMUG1 is a DKC1 interaction partner that contributes to rRNA quality control, partly by regulating 5-hydroxymethyluridine levels.

PMID: 23246433 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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Multiple microRNAs may regulate the DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase.

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Multiple microRNAs may regulate the DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase.

DNA Repair (Amst). 2013 Jan 1;12(1):80-6

Authors: Hegre SA, Sætrom P, Aas PA, Pettersen HS, Otterlei M, Krokan HE

Abstract
Human nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 is essential for post-replicative repair of uracil in DNA, and UNG2 protein and mRNA levels rapidly decline in G2/M phase. Previous work has demonstrated regulation of UNG2 at the transcriptional level, as well as by protein phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. UNG2 mRNA, encoded by the UNG gene, contains a long 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of previously unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that several conserved regions in the 3'UTR are potential seed sites for microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-16, miR-34c, and miR-199a. Our results show that these miRNAs down-regulate UNG activity, UNG mRNA, and UNG protein levels. Down-regulation was dependent on the 3'UTR, indicating that the miRNAs directly target the conserved seed sites in the 3'UTR. These results add miRNAs as a new modality to UNG's increasing list of complex regulatory mechanisms.

PMID: 23228472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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